Despite the high prevalence and enormous public health implications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the factors responsible for its development and progression are incompletely understood. To date, only a few studies have attempted to objectively characterize sleep in patients with CKD prior to kidney failure, but emerging evidence suggests a high prevalence of sleep disorders, particularly obstructive sleep apnea. Laboratory and epidemiologic studies have shown that insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality promote the development and exacerbate the severity of 3 important risk factors for CKD, namely hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. In addition, sleep disturbances might have a direct effect on CKD through chronobiological alterations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system activation. The negative impact of sleep disorders on vascular compliance and endothelial function also may have a deleterious effect on CKD. Sleep disturbances therefore may represent a novel risk factor for the development and progression of CKD. Optimizing sleep duration and quality and treating sleep disorders may reduce the severity and delay the progression of CKD.
Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.