Host remodeling is important for the success of medical implants, including vascular substitutes. Synthetic and tissue-engineered grafts have yet to show clinical effectiveness in arteries smaller than 5 mm in diameter. We designed cell-free biodegradable elastomeric grafts that degrade rapidly to yield neoarteries nearly free of foreign materials 3 months after interposition grafting in rat abdominal aorta. This design focuses on enabling rapid host remodeling. Three months after implantation, the neoarteries resembled native arteries in the following aspects: regular, strong and synchronous pulsation; a confluent endothelium and contractile smooth muscle layers; expression of elastin, collagen and glycosaminoglycan; and tough and compliant mechanical properties. Therefore, future studies employing large animal models more representative of human vascular regeneration are warranted before clinical translation. This cell-free approach represents a philosophical shift from the prevailing focus on cells in vascular tissue engineering and may have an impact on regenerative medicine in general.