Incidence of delayed complications following percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of bone and soft tissue lesions of the spine and extremities: a 2-year prospective study and analysis of risk factors

Skeletal Radiol. 2013 Jan;42(1):61-8. doi: 10.1007/s00256-012-1433-2. Epub 2012 May 22.


Objective: To prospectively evaluate the incidence of delayed complications (bleeding, pain, infection) following CT-guided biopsies of bone or soft tissue lesions and to identify risk factors that predispose to their occurrence.

Materials and methods: All adults presenting for CT-guided biopsy of a bone or soft tissue lesion were eligible for the study. Risk factors considered included patient gender and age, bone versus soft tissue, lesion location, lesion depth, anticoagulation, conscious sedation, coaxial biopsy technique, bleeding during the biopsy, dressing type and duration of placement, final diagnosis, needle gauge, number of passes, and number of days to follow-up. Outcomes measured included fever, pain, bruising/hematoma formation, and swelling and were collected by a follow-up phone call within 14 days of the biopsy. Fisher's exact test, the Wald Chi-square test, and univariate, multivariate, and stepwise logistic regression were performed to evaluate the influence of the risk factors on the outcomes.

Results: A total of 386 patients participated in the study. The rates of post-biopsy fever, pain, bruising, and swelling were 1.0, 16.1, 15.6, and 9.6%, respectively. Anticoagulants were identified as a risk factor for fever. Increasing patient age was identified as a risk factor for pain. Female gender and lesion location were identified as risk factors for bruising. Increasing patient age and lesion location were identified as risk factors for swelling.

Conclusions: Patient age, female gender, and lesion location are risk factors for delayed minor complications following CT-guided biopsy of a bone or soft tissue lesion. There were no major complications. None of the complications in this series altered patient management.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biopsy / methods*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Extremities / diagnostic imaging
  • Extremities / pathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radiography, Interventional / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • Spinal Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Spinal Diseases / pathology*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*