Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of waterpipe smoking in the lymphocytes of waterpipe smokers using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay.
Materials and methods: Fifty waterpipe smokers and 18 healthy non-smokers volunteered to participate in the study. Additionally, 18 heavy cigarette smokers were recruited for comparison. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay was used to evaluate DNA damage in the lymphocytes.
Results: The results showed that similarly to cigarette smoking, waterpipe smoking significantly increased the frequencies of CAs (p < 0.01). In addition, the frequencies of CAs increased with more waterpipe use.
Conclusions: Waterpipe smoking causes DNA damage to lymphocytes and the damage increases with more waterpipe use.