Despite recommendations in the U.S. for routine HPV vaccination of adolescent girls since 2006, rates of vaccination continue to be low. This study reports vaccination uptake, factors associated with vaccine uptake and reasons for non-vaccination within a national sample of adolescent females during 2010. Using a computer administered survey of a national sample of 501 mothers of daughters 14-17 years old we assessed maternal reports of HPV vaccination as well as socio-demographical factors, maternal HPV exposures and reasons chosen for non-vaccination. Reported HPV vaccination rates were slightly over 50 % (51.1 %), with 38.3 % reporting completion of all 3 doses. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were not associated with vaccination initiation; however, Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to complete vaccination. The most common reasons for non-vaccination were concerns about vaccine safety, danger to daughter, and provider non-recommendation. Relatively poor HPV vaccine initiation and only modest 3-dose completion continues to be a major public health concern that requires continued efforts to address identified predictors and reasons for non-vaccination.