In the United States, racial-ethnic minorities experience disproportionately high rates of ESRD, but they are substantially less likely to receive living donor kidney transplants (LDKT) compared with their majority counterparts. Minorities may encounter barriers to LDKT at several steps along the path to receiving it, including consideration, pursuit, completion of LDKT, and the post-LDKT experience. These barriers operate at different levels related to potential recipients and donors, health care providers, health system structures, and communities. In this review, we present a conceptual framework describing various barriers that minorities face along the path to receiving LDKT. We also highlight promising recent and current initiatives to address these barriers, as well as gaps in initiatives, which may guide future interventions to reduce racial-ethnic disparities in LDKT.
Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.