Understanding and overcoming barriers to living kidney donation among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2012 Jul;19(4):244-51. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2012.01.008.


In the United States, racial-ethnic minorities experience disproportionately high rates of ESRD, but they are substantially less likely to receive living donor kidney transplants (LDKT) compared with their majority counterparts. Minorities may encounter barriers to LDKT at several steps along the path to receiving it, including consideration, pursuit, completion of LDKT, and the post-LDKT experience. These barriers operate at different levels related to potential recipients and donors, health care providers, health system structures, and communities. In this review, we present a conceptual framework describing various barriers that minorities face along the path to receiving LDKT. We also highlight promising recent and current initiatives to address these barriers, as well as gaps in initiatives, which may guide future interventions to reduce racial-ethnic disparities in LDKT.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • African Americans*
  • Ethnicity*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice / ethnology*
  • Health Services Accessibility*
  • Healthcare Disparities / ethnology*
  • Hispanic or Latino*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Living Donors*
  • Minority Groups*
  • United States