ICRP Publication 117. Radiological protection in fluoroscopically guided procedures performed outside the imaging department

Ann ICRP. 2010 Dec;40(6):1-102. doi: 10.1016/j.icrp.2012.03.001.


An increasing number of medical specialists are using fluoroscopy outside imaging departments, but there has been general neglect of radiological protection coverage of fluoroscopy machines used outside imaging departments. Lack of radiological protection training of those working with fluoroscopy outside imaging departments can increase the radiation risk to workers and patients. Procedures such as endovascular aneurysm repair, renal angioplasty, iliac angioplasty, ureteric stent placement, therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography,and bile duct stenting and drainage have the potential to impart skin doses exceeding Gy. Although tissue reactions among patients and workers from fluoroscopy procedures have, to date, only been reported in interventional radiology and cardiology,the level of fluoroscopy use outside imaging departments creates potential for such injuries.A brief account of the health effects of ionising radiation and protection principles is presented in Section 2. Section 3 deals with general aspects of the protection of workers and patients that are common to all, whereas specific aspects are covered in Section 4 for vascular surgery, urology, orthopaedic surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology,gastroenterology and hepatobiliary system, and anaesthetics and pain management.Although sentinel lymph node biopsy involves the use of radio-isotopic methods rather than fluoroscopy, performance of this procedure in operating theatres is covered in this report as it is unlikely that this topic will be addressed in another ICRP publication in coming years. Information on radiation dose levels to patients and workers, and dose management is presented for each speciality.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Female
  • Fluoroscopy / adverse effects
  • Fluoroscopy / standards
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Occupational Exposure / prevention & control*
  • Radiation Dosage
  • Radiation Monitoring / methods
  • Radiation Monitoring / standards
  • Radiation Protection / methods*
  • Radiation Protection / standards*
  • Radiology / methods
  • Radiology / standards*