A One-Step Two-Particle Latex Immunoassay for the Detection of Salmonella Typhi Endotoxin

J Immunol Methods. 1990 Dec 31;135(1-2):257-61. doi: 10.1016/0022-1759(90)90279-5.


A simple and rapid test (LIMM, short for latex immunoassay) is described for detecting Salmonella typhi endotoxin. It involves the simultaneous binding of the antigen by two types of reagent particles contained in a micro-tube: an indicator latex particle coated with a monoclonal antibody specific for the O-9 determinant on the endotoxin, and a magnetic bead coated with another monoclonal antibody specific for a different O-determinant. At the end of-the test, the magnetic beads are sedimented by use of a magnet, and the result is read based on the turbidity of the indicator latex suspension. Compared to a similar assay developed previously which uses only a single particle reagent (i.e., a tube agglutination system), LIMM was found to be slightly more sensitive especially when using short (less than 30 min) incubation times, and was at all times easier to read. The sensitivity of LIMM, in fact, increased with increasing time of incubation. When compared to the sensitivity (25 ng/ml) of a conventional slide latex agglutination test performed using the same indicator latex reagent, this parameter was 0-, 4.9-, 12.5- and 28.7-fold better after 5, 15, 30 and 60 min of incubation in the LIMM.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Agglutination Tests / methods
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
  • Antigens, Bacterial / immunology
  • Bacterial Toxins / analysis*
  • Endotoxins / analysis*
  • Enterotoxins / analysis*
  • Immunoassay / methods*
  • Latex
  • Magnetics
  • Mice
  • Microspheres
  • Salmonella typhi* / immunology


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Endotoxins
  • Enterotoxins
  • Latex
  • salmonella toxin