Chloroplasts have a critical role in plant immunity as a site for the production for salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, important mediators of plant immunity. However, the molecular link between chloroplasts and the cytoplasmic-nuclear immune system remains largely unknown. Here we show that pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) signals are quickly relayed to chloroplasts and evoke specific Ca(2+) signatures in the stroma. We further demonstrate that a chloroplast-localized protein, named calcium-sensing receptor (CAS), is involved in stromal Ca(2+) transients and responsible for both PAMP-induced basal resistance and R gene-mediated hypersensitive cell death. CAS acts upstream of salicylic acid accumulation. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CAS is involved in PAMP-induced expression of defence genes and suppression of chloroplast gene expression possibly through (1)O(2)-mediated retrograde signalling, allowing chloroplast-mediated transcriptional reprogramming during plant immune responses. The present study reveals a previously unknown chloroplast-mediated signalling pathway linking chloroplasts to cytoplasmic-nuclear immune responses.