This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related factors associated with these urine parameters were identified. Spot urine samples were collected from privately owned dogs (n=141) and cats (n=50). The RCT determined the effect of a commercial raw meat diet versus a dry diet on Uox and Uca excretion rate in 23 dogs. In the cohort study, Uox excretion ranged from 21.1 to 170.6 mmol oxalate/mol creatinine in dogs and 27.5 to 161.6 in cats. Urinary calcium excretion ranged from 3.4 to 462.8 mmol calcium/mol creatinine in dogs and 10.1 to 128.0 in cats. In dogs, increased Uox and Uca excretion was associated with (1) the intake of a dry diet as the primary source of energy, (2) receiving no snacks and (3) breed. Increased Uox excretion was associated with males as well. In cats, urine collection in anaesthetised subjects was identified as a confounder. In the RCT, feeding the dry diet resulted in higher Uox (P<0.001) and Uca (P=0.021) excretion rates in dogs.