Single-molecule analysis of inhibitory pausing states of V1-ATPase

J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17;287(34):28327-35. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.381194. Epub 2012 Jun 26.


V(1)-ATPase, the hydrophilic V-ATPase domain, is a rotary motor fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Here, we found that Thermus thermophilus V(1)-ATPase shows two types of inhibitory pauses interrupting continuous rotation: a short pause (SP, 4.2 s) that occurred frequently during rotation, and a long inhibitory pause (LP, >30 min) that terminated all active rotations. Both pauses occurred at the same angle for ATP binding and hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed that the time constants of inactivation into and activation from the SP were too short to represent biochemically predicted ADP inhibition, suggesting that SP is a newly identified inhibitory state of V(1)-ATPase. The time constant of inactivation into LP was 17 min, consistent with one of the two time constants governing the inactivation process observed in bulk ATPase assay. When forcibly rotated in the forward direction, V(1) in LP resumed active rotation. Solution ADP suppressed the probability of mechanical activation, suggesting that mechanical rotation enhanced inhibitory ADP release. These features were highly consistent with mechanical activation of ADP-inhibited F(1), suggesting that LP represents the ADP-inhibited state of V(1)-ATPase. Mechanical activation largely depended on the direction and angular displacement of forced rotation, implying that V(1)-ATPase rotation modulates the off rate of ADP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Diphosphate / genetics
  • Adenosine Diphosphate / metabolism
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism*
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / genetics
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Enzyme Activation / physiology
  • Hydrolysis
  • Thermus thermophilus / enzymology*
  • Thermus thermophilus / genetics


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Adenosine Diphosphate
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases