Tobacco smoking is common in people with bipolar disorder, and rates of smoking cessation are lower than in the general population. A literature review found eleven clinical research publications on bipolar disorder and tobacco, including only one smoking cessation pharmacotherapy trial. This article will review these findings and discuss possible reasons for the high rates of tobacco addiction among persons with bipolar disorder, as well as specific vulnerability factors that may contribute to tobacco treatment failure. An approach to the clinical assessment and treatment of tobacco dependence is described for this sub-group of smokers. Finally, recommendations are made for planning future treatment studies in persons with bipolar disorder and nicotine dependence.