Periodontal diseases are a group of multifactorial polymicrobial infections characterized by a progressive inflammatory destruction of the periodontium. Flavonoids, including anthocyanins, are receiving increasing attention because of their promising human health benefits. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins, pure or as part of a standardized black currant extract, on nicotine-induced cytotoxicity and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in human cells. Using a colorimetric assay that measures cell viability, it was found that a pretreatment with an anthocyanin-rich black currant extract or cyanidin-3-O-glucoside neutralized the cytotoxic effect of nicotine on epithelial cells and fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. The black currant extract and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside also inhibited the LPS-induced secretion of interleukin-6 by human macrophages. The results of the present study suggest that black currant extract and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside may be promising candidates for the development of novel therapies to prevent and/or to treat smoking-related periodontal diseases.