A pilot trial of adding maraviroc to suppressive antiretroviral therapy for suboptimal CD4⁺ T-cell recovery despite sustained virologic suppression: ACTG A5256

J Infect Dis. 2012 Aug 15;206(4):534-42. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis376. Epub 2012 Jun 27.


Background: Despite viral suppression, antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not restore CD4(+) T-cell counts in many patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

Methods: In a single-arm pilot trial involving ART recipients with suppressed plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA for at least 48 weeks and stable suboptimal CD4(+) T-cell recovery, subjects added maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, to their existing ART for 24 weeks. After stopping maraviroc, they were followed for an additional 24 weeks. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate whether maraviroc was associated with an increase of at least 20 cells/µL in the CD4(+) T-cell count.

Results: A total of 34 subjects were enrolled. The median age was 50 years, and the median baseline CD4(+) T-cell count was 153 cells/µL. The median increase in CD4(+) T-cell count from baseline to week 22/24 was 12 cells/µL (90% confidence interval, 1-22). A CD4(+) T-cell count increase of at least 20 cells/µL was not detected (P = .97). Markers of immune activation and apoptosis decreased during maraviroc intensification; this decline partially reversed after discontinuing maraviroc.

Conclusions: Adding maraviroc to suppressive ART for 24 weeks was not associated with an increase in CD4(+) T-cell counts of at least 20 cells/µL. Further studies of CCR5 antagonists in the dampening of immune activation associated with HIV infection are warranted. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT 00709111.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00709111.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods*
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Cyclohexanes / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Maraviroc
  • Middle Aged
  • Triazoles / therapeutic use*
  • Viral Load
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Cyclohexanes
  • Triazoles
  • Maraviroc

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00709111

Grant support