An anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention framework: incorporating the recent evidence

Res Sports Med. 2012 Jul;20(3-4):239-62. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2012.680989.


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates have increased by ∼50% over the last 10 years. These figures suggest that ACL focused research has not been effective in reducing injury rates among community level athletes. Training protocols designed to reduce ACL injury rates have been both effective (n = 3) and ineffective (n = 7). Although a rationale for the use of exercise to reduce ACL injuries is established, the mechanisms by which they act are relatively unknown. This article provides an injury prevention framework specific to noncontact ACL injuries and the design of prophylactic training protocols. It is also apparent that feedback within this framework is needed to determine how biomechanically relevant risk factors like peak joint loading and muscular support are influenced following training. It is by identifying these links that more effective ACL injury prevention training programs can be developed, and, in turn, lead to reduced ACL injury rates in the future.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Athletic Injuries / etiology
  • Athletic Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Evidence-Based Practice
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Physical Education and Training / methods