Bra-breast forces generated in women with large breasts while standing and during treadmill running: Implications for sports bra design

Appl Ergon. 2013 Jan;44(1):112-8. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2012.05.006. Epub 2012 Jun 27.


This study aimed to determine the bra-breast forces generated in women with large breasts while these women wore different levels of breast support during both upright standing and treadmill running. The mean bilateral vertical component of the bra-breast force in standing was 11.7 ± 4.6 N, whereas during treadmill running the mean unilateral bra-breast force was 8.7 ± 6.4 N and 14.7 ± 10.3 N in the high and low support conditions, respectively. Furthermore, breast mass was significantly correlated with vertical breast displacement (R(2) = 0.62) in the high support condition. The wide range of breast masses of women with large breasts is an important consideration for designers of sports bras to ensure these bras can reduce force generation and breast discomfort by providing a high level of breast support while these women participate in physical activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acceleration
  • Adult
  • Breast / anatomy & histology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Movement / physiology
  • Organ Size / physiology
  • Posture / physiology
  • Protective Clothing / standards*
  • Running / physiology*
  • Young Adult