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Review
, 7 (6), e38915

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Prevalence and Risk of Recurrence in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: A Meta-Analytic Review

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Review

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Prevalence and Risk of Recurrence in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: A Meta-Analytic Review

Donald Edmondson et al. PLoS One.

Erratum in

Abstract

Background: Acute coronary syndromes (ACS; myocardial infarction or unstable angina) can induce posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and ACS-induced PTSD may increase patients' risk for subsequent cardiac events and mortality.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PTSD induced by ACS and to quantify the association between ACS-induced PTSD and adverse clinical outcomes using systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data sources: Articles were identified by searching Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus, and through manual search of reference lists.

Methodology/principal findings: Observational cohort studies that assessed PTSD with specific reference to an ACS event at least 1 month prior. We extracted estimates of the prevalence of ACS-induced PTSD and associations with clinical outcomes, as well as study characteristics. We identified 56 potentially relevant articles, 24 of which met our criteria (N = 2383). Meta-analysis yielded an aggregated prevalence estimate of 12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9%-16%) for clinically significant symptoms of ACS-induced PTSD in a random effects model. Individual study prevalence estimates varied widely (0%-32%), with significant heterogeneity in estimates explained by the use of a screening instrument (prevalence estimate was 16% [95% CI, 13%-20%] in 16 studies) vs a clinical diagnostic interview (prevalence estimate was 4% [95% CI, 3%-5%] in 8 studies). The aggregated point estimate for the magnitude of the relationship between ACS-induced PTSD and clinical outcomes (ie, mortality and/or ACS recurrence) across the 3 studies that met our criteria (N = 609) suggested a doubling of risk (risk ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.69-2.37) in ACS patients with clinically significant PTSD symptoms relative to patients without PTSD symptoms.

Conclusions/significance: This meta-analysis suggests that clinically significant PTSD symptoms induced by ACS are moderately prevalent and are associated with increased risk for recurrent cardiac events and mortality. Further tests of the association of ACS-induced PTSD and clinical outcomes are needed.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Search strategy flowchart.
Figure 2
Figure 2. ACS-induced PTSD prevalence estimates.
Note: The area of each square is proportional to the study’s weight in the meta-analysis, and each line represents the confidence interval around the estimate. The diamond represents the aggregate estimate, and its lateral points indicate confidence intervals for this estimate.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Funnel plot to assess publication bias across prevalence studies.
Figure 4
Figure 4. ACS-induced PTSD prevalence estimates by diagnostic interview or screening questionnaire.
Note: The area of each square is proportional to the study’s weight in the meta-analysis, and each line represents the confidence interval around the estimate. The diamond represents the aggregate estimate, and its lateral points indicate confidence intervals for this estimate.
Figure 5
Figure 5. Association of ACS-induced PTSD with adverse clinical outcome.
Note: The size of the box associated with each study’s estimate represents the precision of the estimate, and the line represents the confidence interval around the estimate.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Funnel plot to assess publication bias across outcome studies.

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