Gestational enterovirus (EV) infections have been associated with an increased risk for type 1 diabetes in the offspring. We therefore analyzed non-diabetic mothers for EV exposure in early pregnancy in relation to type 1 diabetes HLA-DQ risk genotypes and seroconversion to islet autoantibodies during pregnancy. Non-diabetic mothers who had islet autoantibodies (n=365) against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), islet antigen-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A), or insulin autoantibodies (IAA), in early pregnancy and at delivery were compared to islet autoantibody-negative mothers (n=1457) matched for age and sampling date. Mothers were genotyped for HLA-DQ and analyzed for both EV-RNA and EV-IgM. EV-IgM, but not EV-RNA, was detected during early pregnancy in 12% of islet autoantibody-positive mothers compared to 11% of the controls. In early pregnancy, mothers with HLA-DQ 2/2 or 2/X genotypes showed an increased risk for islet autoantibodies at delivery (OR 1.85; p=0.001). After adjusting for parity, maternal age, year of birth, and season of early pregnancy, early pregnancy EV-IgM combined with DQ2/2 or 2/X increased the risk for islet autoantibodies (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1; p=0.008). EV-IgM in early pregnancy increased the risk for islet autoantibodies at delivery in non-diabetic mothers with HLA-DQ 2/2 or 2/X type 1 diabetes risk genotypes.