The serotonin 1A receptor gene (HTR1A) has been associated with mood disorders (MDs), including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BP). Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis between rs6295 (C-1019G) as well as rs878567 in HTR1A and MDs. Searching PubMed through May 2012, 15 studies, including our own, previously unpublished association study (135 MDD patients and 107 healthy controls), met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis of rs6295 (4,297 MDs patients and 5,435 controls). Five association studies met criteria for the meta-analysis of rs878567 (2041MDs patients and 2,734 controls). rs6295 was associated with combined MDs (P allele model = 0.007 and P recessive model = 0.01). When divided by diagnostic subgroup (MDD = 3,119 patients and 4,380 controls or BP = 1,170 patients and 2,252 controls), rs6295 was associated with each MDs separately (MDD: P allele model = 0.006, P recessive model = 0.01; BP: P dominant model = 0.003). Likewise, rs878567 was associated with combined MDs (2,041 patients and 2,734 controls (P allele model = 0.0002, P dominant model = 0.0008, and P recessive model = 0.01). When divided by diagnostic subgroup (MDD = 1,013 patients and 1,728 controls or BP = 1,051 patients and 2,099 controls), rs878567 was associated with MDD (P allele model = 0.0007 and P dominant model = 0.01), while only one BP study had such data, precluding a meta-analysis. All of these significances survived correction for multiple comparisons. Results from this expanded meta-analysis, which included our own new study, suggest that rs6295 (C-1019G) and rs878567 in HTR1A are related to the pathophysiology of MDs, with overlap between MDD and BP. Findings provide additional clues to the underlying biology and treatment targets in MDs.