Two vs. three or more primary recurrent pregnancy losses--are there any differences in epidemiologic characteristics and index pregnancy outcome?

J Perinat Med. 2012 Feb 16;40(4):365-71. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2011-0295.


Objective: To compare obstetric characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of patients following two vs. three or more primary recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL).

Study design: A retrospective cohort study including 168 patients with primary RPL followed by subsequent (index) pregnancy, 124 patients with three or more consecutive RPL, and 60 patients with two consecutive RPL was performed. All patients were evaluated and treated in the RPL Clinic in the Soroka University Medical Center.

Results: Obstetric characteristics of the study groups were similar. Women with three or more RPL compared to women with two RPL had a higher rate of abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (16.3 vs. 2.6%; P=0.033), higher rates of spontaneous pregnancy (91.7 vs. 77.4%; P<0.05), and higher rates of Clexane treatment (40.3% vs. 18.6%; P=0.016). In the index pregnancy, live birth rate was not statistically different between the two groups (81.1% in the two-RPL groups vs. 70.6% in the three-RPL group) nor was neonatal mortality.

Conclusions: Patients with two RPL and three RPL had very similar obstetric characteristics and evaluation test results. Differences in index pregnancy outcomes were not statistically significant. Therefore, evaluation in primary RPL is recommended after two RPL.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Habitual / blood
  • Abortion, Habitual / epidemiology*
  • Abortion, Spontaneous / blood
  • Abortion, Spontaneous / epidemiology*
  • Anticoagulants / administration & dosage
  • Apgar Score
  • Cohort Studies
  • Enoxaparin / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant Mortality
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Live Birth
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology*
  • Premature Birth / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Thyrotropin / blood


  • Anticoagulants
  • Enoxaparin
  • Thyrotropin