Scientific basis for the Soviet and Russian radiofrequency standards for the general public

Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Dec;33(8):623-33. doi: 10.1002/bem.21742. Epub 2012 Jul 2.


The former Soviet Union (USSR) and the USA were the first countries to introduce standards limiting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. However, the exposure limits in the USSR standards were always much lower than those in the USA and other countries. The objective of this article is to provide a history of the development of the Soviet and Russian RF standards. In addition, we summarize the scientific evidence used to develop the original USSR RF and subsequent Russian public health standards, as well as the mobile telecommunications standard published in 2003, but we do not critique them. We also describe the protective approaches used by the Soviet and Russian scientists for setting their limits. A translation of the papers of the key studies used to develop their standards is available in the online version of this publication.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Phone / standards
  • Humans
  • Public Health / standards*
  • Radio Waves* / adverse effects
  • Radiobiology*
  • Reference Standards
  • Russia