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, 9 (5), 1649-62

Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia Faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

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Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia Faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

Anita K Patlolla et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

Abstract

The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus induction (MN). For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment.

Keywords: Vicia faba; chromosomal aberrations; genotoxicity; micronucleus; mitotic index; silver nanoparticles.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Transmission electron microscope image of silver nanoparticles.
Figure 2
Figure 2
A histochemical stained (feulgen Stain) meristematic root-tip cell of Vicia faba showing silver nanoparticle inside viewed under BXI-40 Olympus Microscope (1,000×), mc = meristematic cell.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of silver nanoparticles on the mitotic index in root-tip meristem of Vicia faba. Each experiment was done in triplicate. Data represents mean ± SD. Statistical significance (p < 0.05) is depicted as (*).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of silver nanoparticles on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in root-tip meristem of Vicia faba. Each experiment was done in triplicate. Data represents mean ± SD. Statistical significance (p < 0.05) is depicted as (*).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Representative images of metaphase chromosomes in root-tip meristem of Vicia faba. A = Normal chromosomes, B = break, C = Gap, D = deletion.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Effect of silver nanoparticles on the frequency of micronucleus induction in root-tip meristem of Vicia faba. Each experiment was done in triplicate. Data represents mean ± SD. Statistical significance (p < 0.05) is depicted as (*).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Representative images of micronuclei formation in the root-tip meristem of Vicia faba.

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