A retrospective study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) revealed that smoking, working under poor ventilation, use of nasal balms or oil for nasal and throat troubles, use of herbal drugs, and anti-EBV antibody titer were found statistically associated. The dural interactions of these factors to the risk of NPC were presented. Except in work conditions with poor ventilation and when herbal drugs are used, all the combinations were synergistic. The synergistic actions were especially remarkable with smoking and other factors. The possible etiological mechanisms of NPC are discussed.