Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor: single dose safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and food effect in healthy subjects

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Feb;75(2):476-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04369.x.


Aims: To evaluate apixaban single dose safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and assess the effect of food on apixaban pharmacokinetics.

Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending-dose, first-in-human study assessed apixaban safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy subjects randomized to oral apixaban (n = 43; 0.5-2.5 mg as solution or 5-50 mg as tablets) or placebo (n = 14) under fasted conditions. An open label, randomized, two treatment crossover study investigated apixaban pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in healthy subjects (n = 21) administered apixaban 10 mg in fasted and fed states. Both studies measured apixaban plasma concentration, international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) or a modified PT (mPT).

Results: In the single ascending-dose study increases in apixaban exposure appeared dose-proportional. Median t(max) occurred 1.5-3.3 h following oral administration. Mean terminal half-life ranged between 3.6 and 6.8 h following administration of solution doses ≤2.5 mg and between 11.1 and 26.8 h for tablet doses ≥5 mg. Concentration-related changes in pharmacodynamic assessments were observed. After a 50 mg dose, peak aPTT, INR and mPT increased by 1.2-, 1.6- and 2.9-fold, respectively, from baseline. In the food effect study: 90% confidence intervals of geometric mean ratios of apixaban C(max) and AUC in a fed vs. fasted state were within the predefined no effect (80-125%) range. Apixaban half-life was approximately 11.5 h. The effect of apixaban on INR, PT and aPTT was comparable following fed and fasted administration.

Conclusions: Single doses of apixaban were well tolerated with a predictable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile and a half-life of approximately 12 h. Apixaban can be administered with or without food.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Factor Xa Inhibitors*
  • Fasting
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / pharmacology
  • Food-Drug Interactions / physiology*
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacology
  • Pyridones / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pyridones / pharmacology
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Factor Xa Inhibitors
  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Pyrazoles
  • Pyridones
  • apixaban