Antenatal maternal bereavement and childhood cancer in the offspring: a population-based cohort study in 6 million children

Br J Cancer. 2012 Jul 24;107(3):544-8. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2012.288. Epub 2012 Jul 3.

Abstract

Background: Prenatal stress may increase the susceptibility to childhood cancer by affecting immune responses and hormonal balance. We examined whether antenatal stress following maternal bereavement increased the risk of childhood cancer.

Methods: All children born in Denmark from 1968 to 2007 (N=2 743 560) and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (N=3 400 212) were included in this study. We compared cancer risks in children born to women who lost a first-degree relative (a child, spouse, a parent, or a sibling) the year before pregnancy or during pregnancy with cancer risks in children of women who did not experience such bereavement.

Results: A total of 9795 childhood cancer cases were observed during follow-up of 68 360 707 person years. Children born to women who lost a child or a spouse, but not those who lost other relatives, had an average 30% increased risk of any cancer (hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.77). The HRs were the highest for non-Hodgkin disease (512 cases in total, HR 3.40, 95% CI 1.51-7.65), hepatic cancer (125 cases in total, HR 5.51, 95% CI 1.34-22.64), and testicular cancer (86 cases in total, HR 8.52, 95% CI 2.03-37.73).

Conclusion: Our data suggest that severe antenatal stress following maternal bereavement, especially due to loss of a child or a spouse, is associated with an increased risk of certain childhood cancers in the offspring, such as hepatic cancer and non-Hodgkin disease, but not with childhood cancer in general.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bereavement*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Denmark / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Neoplasms / etiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy Complications / psychology*
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
  • Risk
  • Stress, Psychological / epidemiology*
  • Sweden / epidemiology