The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a relatively newly designed test that was developed as a tool to screen patients with mild cognitive problems that are not typically detected by the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). While early research suggests that the MoCA is more sensitive to subtle cognitive impairment than the MMSE, there is concern about potential decreased specificity when using the MoCA. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative utility of using the MoCA and the MMSE to detect subtle cognitive impairment among a group of 82 middle-aged U.S. military veterans referred for outpatient neuropsychological testing. Using receiver operating characteristic analyses, the MoCA was shown to be a better predictor of subtle cognitive impairment on neuropsychological testing than the MMSE. When using an adjusted cutoff, the MoCA was shown to be more sensitive (i.e., 0.72 vs. 0.52) and nearly as specific as the MMSE (0.75 vs. 0.77).