Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. Previously, we showed that infection of human trophoblast cells by Ct triggers the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β. The aim of this study was to understand the innate immune pathways involved in trophoblast production of IL-1β after Ct infection. The approach we took was to inhibit the expression or function of the key Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors, and inflammasome components that have been associated with chlamydia infection. In this study, we report that Ct-induced trophoblast IL-1β secretion is associated with the transcription of IL-1β mRNA, the translation and processing of pro-IL-1β, and the activation of caspase-1. In addition, we demonstrate that Ct-induced IL-1β production and secretion by the trophoblast is independent of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and the Nalp3/ASC inflammasome. Instead we report, for the first time, the importance of Nod1 for mediating trophoblast IL-1β secretion in response to a Ct infection.