Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and LOX-like protein-1 (LOXL-1) are extracellular matrix-embedded amine oxidases that have critical roles in the cross-linking of collagen and elastin. LOX family proteins are abundantly expressed in the remodeled heart of animals and humans and are implicated in cardiac fibrosis; however, their role in cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. In this study, in vitro stimulation with hypertrophic agonists significantly increased LOXL-1 expression, LOX enzyme activity and [(3)H] leucine incorporation in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. A LOX inhibitor, beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), inhibited agonist-induced leucine incorporation in cardiomyocytes in vitro, suggesting the involvement of LOXL-1 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Abdominal aortic constriction in rats produced left ventricular hypertrophy in parallel with LOXL-1 mRNA upregulation. And BAPN administration significantly inhibited angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. These results suggest a role of LOXL-1 in cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. We generated transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific expression of LOXL-1. LOXL-1 transgenic mice pups were born normally and grew to adulthood without increased mortality; these mice exhibited a greater left ventricle to body weight ratio, larger myocyte diameter, and more brain natriuretic peptide expression than their wild-type littermates. Echocardiography revealed that the LOXL-1 transgenic mice also had greater wall thickness with preserved cardiac contraction. Our results indicate a possible fundamental role of LOXL-1 in cardiac hypertrophy.