A Child With Isolated Nephrotic Syndrome and WT1 Mutation Presenting as a 46, XY Phenotypic Male

Eur J Pediatr. 2013 Jan;172(1):127-9. doi: 10.1007/s00431-012-1770-0. Epub 2012 Jul 5.


Mutations in the WT1 gene can lead to Denys-Drash syndrome or Frasier syndrome and can also cause isolated nephrotic syndrome (NS). Most patients with isolated NS caused by WT1 mutations present as 46, XX phenotypic females. There have been two cases with an onset age younger than 3 years with isolated NS caused by WT1 mutations presenting as 46, XY phenotypic males. We present a 46, XY phenotypic male patient with isolated NS and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at the age of 6.3 years. He had normal male external genitalia with normal penis length and soft and normal volume of both testes. A mutation, 1051A>G (K351E), in exon 8 of WT1 was identified in the patient. After starting hemodialysis, manifestations of hypertension and renal failure improved, but he died at 6.8 years of age as a result of respiratory failure and heart failure. Our study supports the necessity of searching for mutations in WT1 in 46, XY phenotypic male patients with isolated NS and ESRD.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Denys-Drash Syndrome / genetics*
  • Frasier Syndrome / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / genetics*
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Nephrotic Syndrome / genetics*
  • Phenotype
  • WT1 Proteins / genetics*


  • WT1 Proteins