Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, drug resistance mechanisms, and therapy of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria

Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012 Jul;25(3):545-82. doi: 10.1128/CMR.05030-11.


Within the past 10 years, treatment and diagnostic guidelines for nontuberculous mycobacteria have been recommended by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Moreover, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has published and recently (in 2011) updated recommendations including suggested antimicrobial and susceptibility breakpoints. The CLSI has also recommended the broth microdilution method as the gold standard for laboratories performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria. This article reviews the laboratory, diagnostic, and treatment guidelines together with established and probable drug resistance mechanisms of the nontuberculous mycobacteria.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bone and Bones / microbiology
  • Cell Wall / drug effects
  • Clarithromycin / pharmacology
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests / standards
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / drug therapy*
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / microbiology
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacteria / drug effects
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacteria / isolation & purification
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacteria / pathogenicity*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Reference Standards
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Factors


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Clarithromycin