Triphala (PADMA) extract alleviates bronchial hyperreactivity in a mouse model through liver and spleen immune modulation and increased anti-oxidative effects

Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2012 Aug;6(4):199-210. doi: 10.1177/1753465812452194. Epub 2012 Jul 4.


Objectives: Triphala (TRP), a herbal extract from Tibetan medicine, has been shown to affect lymphocytes and natural killer T (NKT) cell function. We hypothesize that TRP could ameliorate bronchial hyperreactivity through immune-cell modulations.

Methods: Asthma mouse models were generated through intraperitoneal (IP) injections of ovalbumin (OVA)/2 weeks followed by repeated intranasal OVA challenges. Mice were then treated with normal saline (OVA/NS) or Triphala (OVA/TRP). Data were compared with mice treated with inhaled budesonide. All groups were assessed for allergen-induced hyperreactivity; lymphocytes from lungs, livers and spleens were analyzed for OVA-induced proliferation and their alterations were determined by flow cytometry. Oxidative reactivity using chemiluminescence, serum anti-OVA antibodies level and lung histology were assessed.

Results: Both TRP and budesonide significantly ameliorated functional and histological OVA-induced bronchial hyperreactivity. TRP had no effect on serum anti-OVA antibodies as compared with decreased levels following budesonide treatment. Furthermore, a significant increase in lung and spleen CD4 counts and a decrease in the liver were noted after TRP treatments. Bronchoalveolar fluid from TRP-treated animals but not from the budesonide-treated animals showed anti-oxidative effects.

Conclusion: TRP and budesonide caused a significant decrease in bronchial reactivity. TRP treatment altered immune-cell distributions and showed anti-oxidative properties. These findings suggest that immune-cell modulation with TRP can ameliorate lung injury.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Alanine Transaminase / blood
  • Animals
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Asthma / drug therapy*
  • Asthma / immunology
  • Asthma / metabolism
  • Asthma / physiopathology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Bronchial Hyperreactivity / drug therapy*
  • Bronchial Hyperreactivity / immunology
  • Bronchial Hyperreactivity / metabolism
  • Bronchial Hyperreactivity / physiopathology
  • Bronchial Provocation Tests
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / chemistry
  • Budesonide / administration & dosage
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Immunity, Humoral / drug effects
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / immunology
  • Lung / drug effects*
  • Lung / immunology
  • Lung / metabolism
  • Lung / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Ovalbumin
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Spleen / drug effects*
  • Spleen / immunology


  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Plant Extracts
  • triphala
  • Budesonide
  • Ovalbumin
  • Alanine Transaminase