The effect of menstrual cycle on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline has been studied in 9 female asthmatic patients. At three different times during the cycle (first, tenth and twentieth days) each subject received an i.v. infusion of 240 mg theophylline. Significant changes were found in the kinetics of theophylline according to the menstrual cycle. The maximum plasma drug concentration, minimum mean residence time, and minimum elimination half-life were observed at mid-cycle. The lowest clearance was observed at D 20. The AUC and volume of distribution did not vary significantly during the cycle.