Probing the nature of defects in graphene by Raman spectroscopy

Nano Lett. 2012 Aug 8;12(8):3925-30. doi: 10.1021/nl300901a. Epub 2012 Jul 9.


Raman spectroscopy is able to probe disorder in graphene through defect-activated peaks. It is of great interest to link these features to the nature of disorder. Here we present a detailed analysis of the Raman spectra of graphene containing different type of defects. We found that the intensity ratio of the D and D' peak is maximum (∼13) for sp(3)-defects, it decreases for vacancy-like defects (∼7), and it reaches a minimum for boundaries in graphite (∼3.5). This makes Raman Spectroscopy a powerful tool to fully characterize graphene.