HGFK1 inhibits bone metastasis in breast cancer through the TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling pathway

Cancer Gene Ther. 2012 Sep;19(9):601-8. doi: 10.1038/cgt.2012.38. Epub 2012 Jul 6.


Breast cancer metastasis to bone represents a devastating complication of advanced breast cancer, frequently resulting in significant increases in morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the mechanisms that govern breast cancer metastasis at the molecular level should lead to more effective therapies. Recently, the kringle 1 domain of human hepatocyte growth factor (HGFK1) was identified as a candidate metastasis suppressor gene. Here, we investigated whether HGFK1 is a key regulator of breast cancer bone metastasis. Of the 193 human breast carcinoma tissue samples examined, HGFK1 expression was relative higher in 82 (42.4%) by western blot and in 84 (43.5%) by quantitative real-time PCR. The higher expression of HGFK1 was significantly associated with a better prognostic value (P<0.001) and inversely correlated with bone metastasis (P=0.003). The efficacy of adeno-associated virus carrying HGFK1 (AAV-HGFK1) in osteolytic bone metastasis was then evaluated using an in vivo bone metastasis model. AAV-HGFK1 significantly inhibited osteolytic bone metastasis and prolonged the survival of mice in this model (P<0.01). In vitro, HGFK1 expression resulted in significant anti-invasion effects, enhanced the phosphorylation of TAK1 (transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1), p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and MAPKAPK2 (MAPK-activated protein kinase 2) and decreased the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), which was abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. This study shows for the first time that HGFK1 significantly inhibits the metastasis of breast cancer to bone by activating the TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling pathway and inhibiting RANK expression. Thus, AAV-HGFK1 treatment represents a potential therapy for bone metastasis in breast cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Bone Neoplasms / secondary
  • Bone Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Breast Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement
  • Dependovirus / genetics
  • Dependovirus / metabolism
  • Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Genes, Tumor Suppressor
  • Genetic Therapy / methods
  • Genetic Vectors / genetics
  • Genetic Vectors / metabolism
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor / administration & dosage
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor / genetics
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Imidazoles / pharmacology
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Kringles
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases / genetics
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases / metabolism*
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Middle Aged
  • Phosphorylation
  • Prognosis
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Pyridines / pharmacology
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / genetics
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / metabolism
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / genetics
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism


  • HGF protein, human
  • Imidazoles
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Pyridines
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
  • TNFRSF11A protein, human
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor
  • MAP-kinase-activated kinase 2
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases
  • MAP kinase kinase kinase 7
  • SB 203580