Megakaryocyte pathology and bone marrow fibrosis: the lysyl oxidase connection

Blood. 2012 Aug 30;120(9):1774-81. doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-02-402594. Epub 2012 Jul 5.


Megakaryocytes (MKs), the platelet precursors, are capable of accumulating DNA greater than a diploid content as part of their cell cycle. MKs have been recognized as mediating fibrosis in a subset of hematologic malignancies, including acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and a subset of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mechanisms responsible for fibrosis remain only partially understood. Past studies highlighted the role of growth factors in such pathologies, and recently, the protein lysyl oxidase (LOX) has been implicated in proliferation of MKs, ploidy and deposition of fibers. LOX was initially characterized as a protein responsible for the intermolecular cross-linking of elastin and collagen, and in recent years it has been identified as regulator of various pathologies, such as cancer and inflammation. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of MKs to the progression of myelofibrosis, highlighting the newly identified role of LOX.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow / enzymology
  • Bone Marrow / pathology
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute / enzymology
  • Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute / pathology
  • Megakaryocytes / enzymology*
  • Megakaryocytes / pathology
  • Models, Biological
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders / enzymology
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders / pathology
  • Primary Myelofibrosis / enzymology*
  • Primary Myelofibrosis / pathology
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / metabolism*


  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase