Objective: To identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in TGRLs, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity.
Methods: Male apoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice fed HFD for 12 weeks were assessed for metabolic and inflammatory parameters. ApoE(-/-) and WT mice were orally gavaged with [(3)H]palmitic acid to examine the role of apoE in fat delivery to adipose tissue. VLDL from obese apoE(-/-) mice were intravenously injected into lean WT or apoE(-/-) mice to test potential contribution of TGRLs-derived fat delivery to inflammation in adipose tissue and the role of apoE.
Results: ApoE(-/-) mice gained less body weight, and had less fat mass and lower triglyceride levels in skeletal muscle than WT. ApoE(-/-) mice on HFD had better insulin sensitivity than WT even when comparing body weight-matched mice. Compared to WT mice, apoE(-/-) mice on HFD had lower levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and CD11c in adipose tissue, and lower levels of inflammatory markers in skeletal muscle. At 6 h after oral gavage with [(3)H]palmitic acid, incorporation of [(3)H]palmitic acid into adipose tissue and skeletal muscle was lower in apoE(-/-) mice. After repeated daily injection for 3 days, VLDL from obese apoE(-/-) mice induced inflammation in adipose tissue of recipient WT but not apoE(-/-) mice.
Conclusion: In HFD-induced obesity, apoE plays an important role in inflammation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, likely by mediating TGRL-derived fat delivery to these tissues.
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