Aims: Many patients with type 2 diabetes are suboptimally managed with currently available therapies. Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, has shown efficacy in reducing diabetic hyperglycaemia. This study assessed efficacy of three lower doses in recently diagnosed patients.
Methods: This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assigned treatment-naïve patients to placebo or dapagliflozin monotherapy (1, 2.5 or 5 mg) daily for 24 weeks. Patients were antidiabetic drug-naïve with inadequate glycaemic control [haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥7.0 and ≤10.0%]. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline. Secondary endpoints included changes in body weight and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and proportions achieving HbA1c <7%.
Results: A total of 282 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Baseline characteristics were similar across groups. At week 24, mean HbA1c reduction was significantly greater with dapagliflozin: -0.68% for 1 mg, -0.72% for 2.5 mg, -0.82% for 5 mg, versus 0.02% for placebo (p < 0.0001); compared to mean baseline values of 7.8-8.1%. Mean FPG reduction was significantly greater for all dapagliflozin groups versus placebo (p < 0.02), as was mean weight reduction (p < 0.003). During the treatment period, 19.1% of placebo-treated patients received rescue medication or discontinued because of poor glycaemic control versus 6.9, 4.1 and 5.9% for dapagliflozin 1, 2.5 and 5 mg, respectively. Percentages of patients experiencing ≥1 adverse event were similar across groups.
Conclusion: Dapagliflozin at doses of 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/day is effective in reducing glycaemic levels and body weight in treatment-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin was generally well tolerated. This insulin-independent mechanism suggests a new treatment for type 2 diabetes.
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.