Danger signals activating the immune response after trauma

Mediators Inflamm. 2012:2012:315941. doi: 10.1155/2012/315941. Epub 2012 Jun 19.


Sterile injury can cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that resembles the host response during sepsis. The inflammatory response following trauma comprises various systems of the human body which are cross-linked with each other within a highly complex network of inflammation. Endogenous danger signals (danger-associated molecular patterns; DAMPs; alarmins) as well as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) play a crucial role in the initiation of the immune response. With popularization of the "danger theory," numerous DAMPs and PAMPs and their corresponding pathogen-recognition receptors have been identified. In this paper, we highlight the role of the DAMPs high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) as unique dual-function mediators as well as mitochondrial danger signals released upon cellular trauma and necrosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • HMGB1 Protein / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / physiology
  • Interleukin-1alpha / metabolism
  • Interleukin-33
  • Interleukins / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Wounds and Injuries / metabolism*
  • Wounds and Injuries / physiopathology*


  • HMGB1 Protein
  • IL33 protein, human
  • Interleukin-1alpha
  • Interleukin-33
  • Interleukins