Neisseria meningitidis is responsible for rapid-onset septicaemia and/or meningitis, the conditions that are referred as invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Although cases of IMD usually appear only sporadically, they may also emerge in outbreaks and large epidemics. Due to epidemic potential, which Poland has been faced particularly in 2006-2007 and possible fulminant course of infection, many countries have established national meningococcal reference centre. Their activity focus on monitoring of IMD epidemiological situation, based on laboratory confirmed cases and possessed knowledge leads to optimal therapeutic and prophylactic decisions. In Poland such function is assigned to the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis (NRCBM).