Context: Assessment of the fetal safety of vaccination against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in pregnancy has been limited.
Objective: To investigate whether exposure to an adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes.
Design, setting, and participants: Registry-based cohort study based on all liveborn singleton infants in Denmark, delivered between November 2, 2009, and September 30, 2010. In propensity score-matched analyses, we estimated prevalence odds ratios (PORs) of adverse fetal outcomes, comparing infants exposed and unexposed to an AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine during pregnancy.
Main outcome measures: Major birth defects, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age.
Results: From a cohort of 53,432 infants (6989 [13.1%] exposed to the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 vaccine during pregnancy [345 in the first trimester and 6644 in the second or third trimester]), 660 (330 exposed) were included in propensity score-matched analyses of adverse fetal outcomes associated with first-trimester exposure. For analysis of small size for gestational age after second- or third-trimester exposure, 13,284 (6642 exposed) were included; for analyses of preterm birth, 12,909 (6543 exposed) were included. A major birth defect was diagnosed in 18 of 330 infants (5.5%) exposed to the vaccine in the first trimester, compared with 15 of 330 unexposed infants (4.5%) (POR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.60-2.45). Preterm birth occurred in 31 of 330 infants (9.4%) exposed in the first trimester, compared with 24 of 330 unexposed infants (7.3%) (POR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.76-2.31), and in 302 of 6543 infants (4.6%) with second- or third-trimester exposure, compared with 295 of 6366 unexposed infants (4.6%) (POR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.84-1.17). Small size for gestational age was observed in 25 of 330 infants (7.6%) with first-trimester exposure compared with 31 of 330 unexposed infants (9.4%) (POR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.46-1.37), and in 641 of 6642 infants (9.7%) with second- or third-trimester exposure, compared with 657 of 6642 unexposed infants (9.9%) (POR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.09).
Conclusions: In this Danish cohort, exposure to an adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine during pregnancy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of major birth defects, preterm birth, or fetal growth restriction.