Use of a furosemide drip does not improve earlier primary fascial closure in the open abdomen

J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2012 Apr;5(2):126-30. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.96480.


Background: The furosemide drip (FD), in addition to improving volume overload respiratory failure, has been used to decrease fluid in attempts to decrease intra-abdominal and abdominal wall volumes to facilitate fascial closure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the FD and the associated rate of primary fascial closure following trauma damage control laparotomy (DCL).

Materials and methods: From January 2004 to September 2008, a retrospective review from a single institution Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons dataset was performed. All DCLs greater than 24 h who had a length of stay for 3 or more days were identified. The study group (FD+) and control group (FD-) were compared. Demographic data including age, sex, probability of survival, red blood cell transfusions, initial lactate, and mortality were collected. Primary outcomes included primary fascial closure and primary fascial closure within 7 days. Secondary outcomes included total ventilator days and LOS.

Results: A total of 139 patients met inclusion criteria: 25 FD+ and 114 FD-. The 25 FD+ patients received the drug at a median 4 days post DCL. Demographic differences between the groups were not significantly different, except that initial lactate was higher for FD- (1.7 vs 4.0; P=0.03). No differences were noted between groups regarding successful primary fascial closure (FD+ 68.4% vs FD- 64.0%; P=0.669), or closure within 7 days (FD+13.2% vs FD- 28.0%; P=0.066) of original DCL. FD+ patients suffered more open abdomen days (4 [2-7] vs 2 [1-4]; P=0.001). FD+ did not demonstrate an association with primary fascial closure [Odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.260-8.307; P=0.663]. FD+ patients had more ventilator days and longer Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/hospital LOS (P<0.01).

Conclusion: FD use may remove excess volume; however, forced diuresis with an FD is not associated with an increased rate of primary closure after DCL. Further studies are warranted to identify ICU strategies to facilitate fascial closure in DCL.

Keywords: Furosemide drip; open abdomen; primary fascial closure.