Oxidative stress induced by 1.8 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation and effects of garlic extract in rats

Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Nov;88(11):799-805. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2012.711504. Epub 2012 Aug 8.


Purpose: We aimed to study the oxidative damage induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by mobile telephones and the protective effect of garlic extract used as an anti-oxidant against this damage.

Materials and methods: A total of 66 albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The first group of rats was given 1.8 GHz, 0.4 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) for 1 h a day for three weeks. The second group was given 500 mg/kg garlic extract in addition to RF-EMR. The third group of rats was used as the control group. At the end of the study, blood and brain tissue samples were collected from the rats.

Results: After the RF-EMR exposed, the advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels of brain tissue increased compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Garlic administration accompanying the RF-EMR, on the other hand, significantly reduced AOPP levels in brain tissue (p < 0.001). The serum nitric oxide (NO) levels significantly increased both in the first and second group (p < 0.001). However, in the group for which garlic administration accompanied that of RF-EMR, there was no difference in serum NO levels compared with the RF-EMR exposed group (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference among the groups with respect to malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in brain tissue and blood samples (p > 0.05). Similarly, no difference was detected among the groups regarding serum paroxonase (PON) levels (p > 0.05). We did not detect any PON levels in the brain tissue.

Conclusions: The exposure of RF-EMR similar to 1.8 GHz Global system for mobile communication (GSM) leads to protein oxidation in brain tissue and an increase in serum NO. We observed that garlic administration reduced protein oxidation in brain tissue and that it did not have any effects on serum NO levels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Advanced Oxidation Protein Products / blood
  • Advanced Oxidation Protein Products / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / radiation effects*
  • Cell Phone
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
  • Electromagnetic Fields
  • Garlic / chemistry*
  • Microwaves
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Oxidative Stress / radiation effects*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Radiation-Protective Agents / administration & dosage
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Advanced Oxidation Protein Products
  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Radiation-Protective Agents