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Review
, 9 (6), 566-82

Anatomical and Histological Factors Affecting Intranasal Drug and Vaccine Delivery

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Review

Anatomical and Histological Factors Affecting Intranasal Drug and Vaccine Delivery

Sveinbjörn Gizurarson. Curr Drug Deliv.

Abstract

The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive route for drug administration. The blood flow into the nasal region is slightly more than reabsorbed back into the nasal veins, but the excess will drain into the lymph vessels, making this region a very attractive route for vaccine delivery. Many of the side effects seen following intranasal administration are caused by some of the 6 nerves that serve the nasal cavity. The 5th cranial nerve (trigeminus nerve) is responsible for sensing pain and irritation following nasal administration but the 7th cranial nerve (facial nerve) will respond to such irritation by stimulating glands and cause facial expressions in the subject. The first cranial nerve (olfactory nerve), however, is the target when direct absorption into the brain is the goal, since this is the only site in our body where the central nervous system is directly expressed on the mucosal surface. The nasal mucosa contains 7 cell types and 4 types of glands. Four types of cells and 2 types of glands are located in the respiratory region but 6 cell types and 2 types of glands are found in the olfactory region.

Figures

Fig. (1)
Fig. (1)
The key landmarks representing the human nose.
Fig. (2)
Fig. (2)
The linear and angular measurements used to analyze and characterize the external nose.
Fig. (3)
Fig. (3)
The external nasal anatomy, bones, cartilage and musculature. Procerus, levator labii alaequae nasi, and anomalous nasi represents the elevator muscles; alar nasalis and depressor septi nasi are the depressor muscles; the compressor muscles are constructed of transverse nasalis and compressor narium minor; and dilator naris anterior is the dilator muscle.
Fig. (4)
Fig. (4)
Sagittal section of the nasal cavity showing the lateral wall (or the outer wall) of the nasal cavity on the left and the inner wall (nasal septum) on the right. The septum shows deep groves for the vascular nervous canals.
Fig. (5)
Fig. (5)
Horizontal section through the main nasal passage showing the nasal septum, folding of the conchae and the nasal passage in relation to the paranasal sinuses.
Fig. (6)
Fig. (6)
The anatomy of the cribiform plate (olfactory region).
Fig. (7)
Fig. (7)
Sagittal section showing the openings into the nasal cavity. The inferior, middle and superior conchae have been cut over to show the location of each opening.
Fig. (8)
Fig. (8)
Sagittal section of the nasal cavity showing the arterial supply to the lateral wall and the nasal septum.
Fig. (9)
Fig. (9)
Sagittal section showing the major connections of the venous draining from the nasal cavity (left) and sagittal section of the nasal cavity showing the venous drainage in the lateral wall (right).
Fig. (10)
Fig. (10)
The location of the erectile tissue inside the nasal cavity.
Fig. (11)
Fig. (11)
Cross section of a normal vein and a fenestrated vein. The drawing demonstrating the absorption capacity of nasal venous system.
Fig. (12)
Fig. (12)
The relationship between the lymphatic system and the blood capillaries as well as the drainage of fluid into the lymphatic system.
Fig. (13)
Fig. (13)
Drawing showing the lymphatic draining from the nasal region (left) and a sagittal section of the nasal cavity showing the lymph drainage in the lateral wall (right).
Fig. (14)
Fig. (14)
Sagittal section of the nasal cavity showing the neuronal innervations, to the lateral wall and the nasal septum.
Fig. (15)
Fig. (15)
Olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory epithelium. A reproduction of an original drawing made by Cajal in 1894. Reprinted by permission from the Cajal Institute, Spain.
Fig. (16)
Fig. (16)
Sagittal section of the nasal cavity showing the vomeronasal organ (left). To the right is a drawing of the nasal septum containing the vomeronasal organ, by Dr. C. Brookover in 1914.
Fig. (17)
Fig. (17)
The anatomy of a olfactory gland (left) and a seromucous gland (right).
Fig. (18)
Fig. (18)
The structure of a squamous (left) and transitional (right) epithelium.
Fig. (19)
Fig. (19)
The anatomy of a ciliated cell and schematic diagrams showing the molecular structure of cilia.
Fig. (20)
Fig. (20)
Sagittal section of the nasal cavity showing the distribution of ciliated, columnar and goblet cells.
Fig. (21)
Fig. (21)
The anatomy of a basal cell, columnar cell and a goblet cell (left) and a schematic diagram of a microvilli (right).
Fig. (22)
Fig. (22)
The structure of an olfactory cell together with supporting cells and basal cells (left) and olfactory mucosa (right).

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