NRP1 and NRP2 cooperate to regulate gangliogenesis, axon guidance and target innervation in the sympathetic nervous system

Dev Biol. 2012 Sep 15;369(2):277-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.06.026. Epub 2012 Jul 10.


The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arises from neural crest (NC) cells during embryonic development and innervates the internal organs of vertebrates to modulate their stress response. NRP1 and NRP2 are receptors for guidance cues of the class 3 semaphorin (SEMA) family and are expressed in partially overlapping patterns in sympathetic NC cells and their progeny. By comparing the phenotypes of mice lacking NRP1 or its ligand SEMA3A with mice lacking NRP1 in the sympathetic versus vascular endothelial cell lineages, we demonstrate that SEMA3A signalling through NRP1 has multiple cell-autonomous roles in SNS development. These roles include neuronal cell body positioning, neuronal aggregation and axon guidance, first during sympathetic chain assembly and then to regulate the innervation of the heart and aorta. Loss of NRP2 or its ligand SEMA3F impaired sympathetic gangliogenesis more mildly than loss of SEMA3A/NRP1 signalling, but caused ectopic neurite extension along the embryonic aorta. The analysis of compound mutants lacking SEMA3A and SEMA3F or NRP1 and NRP2 in the SNS demonstrated that both signalling pathways cooperate to organise the SNS. We further show that abnormal sympathetic development in mice lacking NRP1 in the sympathetic lineage has functional consequences, as it causes sinus bradycardia, similar to mice lacking SEMA3A.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aorta / embryology
  • Aorta / innervation
  • Aorta / metabolism
  • Axons / metabolism
  • Cell Lineage
  • Female
  • Fetal Heart / embryology
  • Fetal Heart / innervation
  • Fetal Heart / metabolism
  • Ganglia, Sympathetic / growth & development
  • Ganglia, Sympathetic / metabolism
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / deficiency
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / deficiency
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Neural Crest / embryology
  • Neural Crest / metabolism
  • Neurites / metabolism
  • Neurogenesis / genetics
  • Neurogenesis / physiology*
  • Neuropilin-1 / deficiency
  • Neuropilin-1 / genetics
  • Neuropilin-1 / metabolism*
  • Neuropilin-2 / deficiency
  • Neuropilin-2 / genetics
  • Neuropilin-2 / metabolism*
  • Pregnancy
  • Semaphorin-3A / deficiency
  • Semaphorin-3A / genetics
  • Semaphorin-3A / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Sympathetic Nervous System / cytology
  • Sympathetic Nervous System / embryology*
  • Sympathetic Nervous System / metabolism*


  • Membrane Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Neuropilin-2
  • Sema3a protein, mouse
  • Sema3f protein, mouse
  • Semaphorin-3A
  • Neuropilin-1