Objectives: Survival for hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients requiring pediatric intensive care unit admission may be improving. This study was conducted to review outcomes for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation requiring admission to our pediatric intensive care unit and to identify variables impacting survival.
Design: Retrospective database review.
Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit and bone marrow transplant service of a children's hospital.
Patients: Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our center from July 2004 through June 2010 requiring pediatric intensive care unit admission during the same period.
Measurements and main results: Thirty-five percent of patients (155 of 448) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation required 319 admissions over this period. Of these 155 patients, 63% (97 of 155) were discharged alive following their most recent admission with a 100-day survival of 51% (79 of 155). Forty-five percent (69 of 155) of patients were still alive on long-term follow-up. Intubation and mechanical ventilation were required for 57% (88 of 155) of patients, with 39% (34 of 88) of patients surviving their last pediatric intensive care unit admission. Renal support was utilized for 25% (38 of 155) of patients with 34% (13 of 38) survival to pediatric intensive care unit discharge. Admissions surviving to pediatric intensive care unit discharge had significantly lower Pediatric Risk of Mortality II scores, shorter pediatric intensive care unit length of stay, lower utilization of intubation and mechanical ventilation with fewer ventilator days, and lower use of renal support when compared to nonsurvivors. Of note, each prior pediatric intensive care unit admission significantly reduced the odds of pediatric intensive care unit survival.
Conclusions: We report a 63% survival to pediatric intensive care unit discharge, with 45% surviving at a median follow-up of over 2 yrs for all hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit over a 6-yr period. Our data suggest improved survival outcomes for this high risk patient population.