Risk factors for mortality in community acquired pneumonia among children aged 1-59 months admitted in a referral hospital

Indian Pediatr. 2012 Nov;49(11):889-95. doi: 10.1007/s13312-012-0221-3. Epub 2012 Mar 30.


Objective: To determine the case fatality rate and factors for death in community acquired pneumonia among children aged 1 month to 59 months admitted in a referral Hospital.

Design: Hospital based retrospective study.

Setting: Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Chennai.

Patients: Case records of children aged 1 month to 59 months of age with pneumonia (clinically diagnosed pneumonia, radiologically diagnosed pneumonia, and clinically and radiologically diagnosed pneumonia), from January 2006 to December 2008. Outcome measures Case fatality rate (CFR) was calculated. Risk factors for mortality analyzed were young age of 1 to 6 months old, female sex, wheeze, respiratory rate >70/min, chest indrawing, altered level of consciousness, convulsions, shock, associated heart disease, recent measles, weight for age <-2 Z score and need for assisted ventilation. The association of risk factors to mortality was arrived at for all three categories of pneumonia cases separately.

Results: Case fatality rate was 8.2% (95% CI: 7.37- 8.99%). There was no significant difference in the CFR among the three study groups. Need for assisted ventilation alone was found to be an independent risk factor for mortality in children with pneumonia among all the study groups. Other risk factors like young age, weight for age <-2 Z score, altered level of consciousness, and congenital heart disease were also observed among these groups.

Conclusion: Among 1 month to 59 months old hospitalized children with pneumonia, CFR was 8.2%. Need for assisted ventilation was a significant risk factor associated with mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Community-Acquired Infections / diagnosis
  • Community-Acquired Infections / mortality*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial / diagnosis
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial / mortality*
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial / physiopathology
  • Referral and Consultation
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome