Ultra high pressure in the second dimension of a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for carotenoid separation in red chili peppers

J Chromatogr A. 2012 Sep 14;1255:244-51. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.06.076. Epub 2012 Jun 29.


A comprehensive normal-phase × reversed-phase (NP-LC × RP-LC) liquid chromatography system was developed, and applied for analysis of the intact carotenoid composition of red chili peppers, with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. A micro-bore cyano column (250 mm × 1.0 mm, 5 μm d.p.) was chosen for the first dimension ((1)D) separation, interfaced to a second dimension ((2)D) C18 column (30 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm d.p.) packed with fused-core particles. Subsequently, two columns of the same stationary phase were coupled serially for second dimension separation, and operated under ultra high pressure LC conditions (UHPLC), within a cycle time of 1.50 or 1.00 min, and equal modulation times. Performances of the three different set-ups were evaluated, in terms of peak capacity values (n(c)), and afterwards corrected by taking into account both the under-sampling, and the orthogonality effects. After these adjustments, the peak capacity values were estimated as follows: n(c) 526, for the NP-LC × RP-LC system, n(c) 373, for the NP-LC × RP-UHPLC system with a 1.50 min modulation time, n(c) 639, for the NP-LC × RP-UHPLC system, with a 1.00 min modulation time. A total of 33 compounds were separated into 10 different chemical classes in the two-dimensional space, and identified by accurate IT-TOF (ion trap-time of flight) MS detection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Capsicum / chemistry*
  • Carotenoids / chemistry
  • Carotenoids / isolation & purification*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / instrumentation*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Chromatography, Reverse-Phase / methods
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods


  • Carotenoids