Trends in prevalence, awareness, management, and control of hypertension among United States adults, 1999 to 2010

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Aug 14;60(7):599-606. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.04.026. Epub 2012 Jul 11.


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify the trends in blood pressure (BP), and the prevalence, awareness, management, and control of hypertension in U.S. adults (≥20 years of age) from 1999 to 2010, and to assess the efficacy of current clinical measures in diagnosing and adequately treating hypertensive patients.

Background: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Recent data indicate a decreasing trend in hypertension prevalence, along with improvements in hypertension awareness, management, and control.

Methods: The study used regression models to assess the trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, management, and control from 1999 to 2010 among 28,995 male and female adults with BP measurements from a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 1999 to 2010), with special attention given to 5,764 participants in NHANES 2009 to 2010.

Results: In 2009 to 2010, the prevalence of hypertension was 30.5% among men and 28.5% among women. The hypertension awareness rate was 69.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.0% to 77.4%) among men and 80.7% (95% CI: 74.5% to 86.8%) among women. The hypertension control rate was 40.3% (95% CI: 33.7% to 46.9%) for men and 56.3% (95% CI: 49.2% to 63.3%) for women. From 1999 to 2010, the prevalence of hypertension remained stable. Although hypertension awareness, management, and control improved, the overall rates remained poor (74.0% for awareness, 71.6% for management, 46.5% for control, and 64.4% for control in management); worse still, no improvement was shown from 2007 to 2010.

Conclusions: From 1999 to 2010, prevalence of hypertension remained stable. Hypertension awareness, management, and control were improved, but remained poor; nevertheless, there has been no improvement since 2007.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Hypertension / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Prevalence
  • Regression Analysis
  • United States / epidemiology