Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone with short half-life, has consistently shown strong pharmacological efficacy. We first assessed the efficacy of murine recombinant FGF21 in C57BL6 lean mice for 5 wk. We then generated a long-acting FGF21 molecule by fusing a Fc to a variant of human recombinant FGF21 (hrFGF21) that contained two engineered mutations [L98R, P171G; Fc-FGF21(RG)] and tested it in C57BL6 diet-induced obese mice and obese rhesus monkeys. We compared its metabolic properties with those of the hrFGF21. Groups of diet-induced obese mice were treated for 36 d with different doses of hrFGF21 (01, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg twice daily) and with Fc-FGF21(RG) (2.3 mg/kg, every 5 d). Body weight, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were decreased after treatment with either compound. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was also improved. Obese rhesus monkeys were treated with hrFGF21 (once a day) and Fc-FGF21(RG) (once a week) in a dose-escalation fashion. Doses started at 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg and ended at 3 and 5 mg/kg for hrFGF21 and Fc-FGF21(RG), respectively. Doses were escalated every 2 wk, and animals were followed up for a washout period of 3 wk. Body weight, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and the GTT profile were decreased to a greater extent with Fc-FGF21(RG) than with hrFGF21. The PK-PD relationship of Fc-FGF21(RG) exposure and triglyceride reduction was also conducted with a maximum response model. In conclusion, in more than one species, Fc-FGF21(RG) chronically administered once a week showed similar or greater efficacy than hrFGF21 administered daily.