Chemical alterations taken place during deep-fat frying based on certain reaction products: a review

Chem Phys Lipids. 2012 Sep;165(6):662-81. doi: 10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2012.07.002. Epub 2012 Jul 16.


Deep-fat frying at 180 °C or above is one of the most common food processing methods used for preparing of human kind foods worldwide. However, a serial of complex reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis, isomerization, and polymerization take place during the deep-fat frying course and influence quality attributes of the final product such as flavor, texture, shelf life and nutrient composition. The influence of these reactions results from a number of their products including volatile compounds, hydrolysis products, oxidized triacylglycerol monomers, cyclic compounds, trans configuration compounds, polymers, sterol derivatives, nitrogen- and sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds, acrylamide, etc. which are present in both frying oil and the fried food. In addition, these reactions are interacted and influenced by various impact factors such as frying oil type, frying conditions (time, temperature, fryer, etc.) and fried material type. Based on the published literatures, three main organic chemical reaction mechanisms namely hemolytic, heterolytic and concerted reaction were identified and supposed to elucidate the complex chemical alterations during deep-fat frying. However, well understanding the mechanisms of these reactions and their products under different conditions helps to control the deep-fat frying processing; therefore, producing healthy fried foods. By means of comprehensively consulting the papers which previously studied on the chemical changes occurred during deep-fat frying process, the major reaction products and corresponding chemical alterations were reviewed in this work.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Fatty Acids / chemistry
  • Heterocyclic Compounds / chemistry
  • Isomerism
  • Oils / chemistry
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Sterols / chemistry
  • Triglycerides / chemistry*


  • Antioxidants
  • Fatty Acids
  • Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Oils
  • Sterols
  • Triglycerides